There was a steady flow of secret information sent through the “over the pole” flights from Montana to Russia run by Lend Lease. Major Jordon, in his book Major Jordon’s Diaries
, documents this flow of information (e.g. drawings for making A-bombs and other physical things (e.g. yellow cake uranium which is used to make A-bombs)). These diaries also record 418 Soviet “diplomatic” personal who came into the US via this air link.
The Lend Lease organization wanted test results from the Manhattan Project showing which approaches to making the bomb were most promising but Gen Groves at the Project objected to giving test data up. Later when Truman at Potsdam told Stalin that US had a new “big bomb”. Stalin was already fully aware of it. During this time Major Jordon recalls a large map with a note attached. The map was of Oak Ridge TN and showed the Manhattan Project’s facility located there. The transmittal note was signed by someone whose initials were “H.H.”
Soviet cooperation was not coming the other way. One plane on the 1942 Dolittle Mission over Tokyo was improperly fueled. It was forced to land in Russia rather than China. The crew was held captive for one year before release.
A Soviet named Krochenko defected and Harry Hopkins, who was living at the White House and serving as FDR’s assistant, insisted that the defector be returned to the Soviets. FDR wavered and Krochenko want into uncertain status until Truman came into office and finally granted asylum.
Lend Lease was Armand Hammer’s idea but the details were worked out by Harry Dexter While in Treasury. It was a massive “give away” mostly to Russia (and to a much lesser extent Britain) . It was justified to Congress by the slogan “if we help our friends materially, we won’t have to send men ”.
During the war Gen Marshall was fond of saying “Harry Hopkins is here to represent Russia’s interests, I’m here to represent America’s”
Deception of Communism and the Hopkins’ Soviet connection is discussed. If historians acknowledge that Hopkins was probably a Communist, then that casts a pall over all FDR’s decision making during WWII. So rather than face that reality historians have generally gone the other way and obfuscated Hopkins’ loyalties.
A Communist named John Service worked for a magazine named Amerasia and was caught with 1000 pounds of classified documents. This case was strong but for some reason it was miss handled and never came to trial. Also there was a man named Silvermaster in Washington who had a photo lab in his basement where took pictures of classified documents for transmittal to Russia.
Part of post war failure to prosecute Singer was Truman’s preference for concealment rather than transparency. Truman’s people even threatened Chambers with indictment if he testified against Hiss. However, military intelligence (Venona) had already determined that Hiss was a spy so Truman backed off.
This chapter is about Hopkins and the degree to which the Soviets had co-oped the US govt. Hopkins lived in the White House for 3 yrs and 7 months during the critical early months of the war. He then married and moved out only to die of stomach cancer in Jan ‘46. He continued to work out of the White House though his health began to fail. .
Hopkins managed information flow to FDR in Sept 44 when the Polish rising against the Soviets occur, because of his presence there was no chance FDR would approve aid to the Polish rebels. Soviet Spymaster Akhmerov said Hopkins was the USSR’s greatest asset during the war. A Hopkins aide, named Hyman, scrubbed the Hopkins papers before they were turned over to Sherwood who wrote the definitive 1000 page biography of Hopkins. Sherwood noted that Hopkins would explore all sides of an issue and never disclose his personal leanings. Even his mother said you could never be certain what he was thinking. At college he was called Dirty Harry because of his double dealing.
As to Hopkins’ spying, we know from the Soviet archives opened in ‘92 that Hopkins had anti-communist survalence information from the FBI that he shared with the Soviets.
As for FDR himself he was non-ideological. Looked for practical solutions. But latter in his presidency his concentration waned and he spent more time in stamp collecting and listening to various sea stories. It is interesting that such a person would be elected 4 times and have such a profound effect on America’s understanding of itself.
FDR did believe in “convergence” under which the capitalist west would move toward the socialist east and vis versa. With this in mind FDR arranged to recognize the Soviet Union in 33 in exchange for a promise that they would not engage in subversion. Amb. Bullitt in ‘35 told FDR the Soviets would break any agreement. Bullitt documented many violations in the first 24 months following recognition.
Krauchenko a Soviet leader defected in 3/44. He was shocked at how throughly the Soviet line had been swallowed by the West particularly the USA. He was stunned that the Katyn Forrest massecre of 22,000 Polish leaders story had not gotten out. In fact this killing of Polish officers by the USSR was not acknowledged by the US until ‘51. A Brutish diplomat named O’Malley wrote a report in ‘43 which proves the massacre was done by the Soviets. Many journalists of the 43 to 45 period referred to the White House as “pink”. Former Gov Earle of Pennsylvania served in the diplomatic corps during WWII. He felt long term the Soviet menace was greater than the German.
About Gulag and POW camps. – Solzhenitsyn said you can’t work with the Soviets without becoming corrupt and the true horror of the Soviet system doesn’t come through in statistics, it only becomes clear the stories of some individuals. This is why he wrote One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich. Because of his fame, he was allowed to leave the Soviet Union in ‘74.
About this time, the USSR was sponsoring kidnapping, robberies, bombings in the third world to creat openings for their subversion. The west did not really cover these antics because there was a pro-socialist, pro-collectivist attitude among western journalists. Because of this slant to the left, the White House refused to honor Solzhenitsyn. Clair Sterling, a journalist, at the time said she felt dirty when she had to write something negative about the USSR.
FDR, in ‘43 at Tehran, said all allied countries were serving their populations as those populations wished to be served. Soviet citizens were outraged. After the war over two million Soviet citizens who had struggled to get to the west were forced to return to the USSR. And as many as 20000 US and 20000 UK POWs who were taken by the Soviets were never allowed to return home. Individual preference was to be ignored under the Tehran protocol.
During the war all State Dept officials not favorable to the USSR were assigned to inconsequential jobs by Hopkins and Hiss were they could not comment on anything to do with Soviet goings on. Gov Earle being a personal friend of FDR (both having been former Northeastern governors) was a lonely exception.
About D-Day. Churchill wanted to attack Germany from the South not the west. Stalin wanted the second front to come through France from the west. The UK – US alliance had had success in North Africa and then up through Italy. Gen Arnold felt with his air assets the Italian push could go right up into Austria etc.
A Soviet defector, named Suvorov, felt Stalin had tricked the Germans into invading Poland by promising a division of the spoils in Eastern Europe and that Stalin felt he should still get his “share of the spoils” even though Germany was going down to defeat. That meant the Soviets (not the UK-US army) would have to occupy the nations of Eastern and central Europe. Of course, that’s what happened.
Rep Martin Dies, Gen Wedemeyer, Gen Clark, and Amb Bullitt all felt we won the war but lost the peace as Soviet control settled over all the countries from the Baltic to the Adriatic. They could not speak up without being called “Red Baiters”….
One key policy that played into Stalin’s hands was the policy of unconditional surrender…. the other was the success of Soviet agent in Tokyo who got the general staff there to re-direct their thinking away from an attack against the USSR in its far east and instead get the Japanese general staff to focus on the US , this even though Adm Yamamoto told them they could not defeat the US.
The policy of unconditional surrender meant Germany would fight longer and this would allow the USSR to occupy more territory before surrender occurred. The Japanese decision to attack Pearl Harbor was momentous. It brought the US into the conflict and it spared the USSR a second front.
Just before Pearl Harbor, US Ambassador Grew in Tokyo was trying to work something out with Japan, but he ran into repeated difficulty with the US State Dept. where Laughlin Currie, a soviet spy, was handling the other end of his communications with Washington.
Early in the war Lend Lease was a problem. Planes which might have saved the Phillippines and Singapore were redirected to the Soviet Union. Gen MacArthur in the end pleaded to get just three planes so he could have eyes in the sky over Corregidor but was denied. Just a few fighters at Singapore might have saved to large British warships which were there with no air cover when the Japanese came. FDR directed that the term “Lend Lease” and the nation of “USSR” were never to used tegether in any public release. The American people were to believe it was for the British.
Cardinal Spellman visited FDR in Sept 43 He reported FDR was already accepting Soviet domination of Central/Eastern Europe. (In Sept 43 the Soviet Army was entirely in Russia. ) FDR thought after 20 years of “convergence” would occur and these economies would become 60% capitalist and 40% government controlled.
By the Tehran conference in Dec ‘43, FDR was totally dependent on Hopkins. Here they discussed a second front. Churchill wanted it to come from the south into Central Europe, Russia, intending to occupy those areas, wanted the second front through France preferably across the Channel, but Southern France was also acceptable. Hopkins had FDR’s ear and arranged for it to come across the Channel. Shortly thereafter Hopkins moved out of the White House with a new wife and daughter to digs in Georgetown, then he became ill and had a seven month condolences. All these factors help to confirm the fact that Hopkins is the famous “Agent 19″ in the Venona intercepts and in the soviet archive opened in 1992.
Here we turn to the German attempts to make peace, the German internal resistance, the idea of unconditional surrender, the Morgenthau Plan, and more on Operation Snow. A review of each is in order.
Adm Cannaris the head of German intelligence realized very early that the German cause was lost. He contacted the British about a deal in ‘42 but with no response. He finally reached out to Gov Earle who was then stationed in Turkey and asked him to help. Earle had difficulty getting a message through to FDR but finally managed it. The answer was “no interest” and don’t talk about it. Cannaris then made an attempt through the Vatican but the American (Monde) who brought that message back from the Vatican was “disbelieved” by a Hopkins flunkies and had his passport pulled so he could not travel again.
The German resistance was large and was the only resistance movement in Europe that received no support from the Allies. In fact when an AP reporter discovered indications of such a resistance effort and then wrote an article. However, the OWI spiked the article. Following that FDR issued an order forbidding any mention of any German resistance effort. Thereafter all Germans were bad.
The term “Unconditional Surrender” first appeared in a May 42 committee report. This committee included 5 known communists including Hiss and White. The term next appears as official policy at Casablanca where first Hopkins and a few days later FDR use it. Gen Wedemeyer said that term hardened German resolve and required that all territory be physically taken (exactly what the Soviets wanted to happen).
Operation Snow was the Soviet’s successful attempt to get the Japanese to expend their energies in Southeast Asia and the Pacific rather than in the USSR’s Pacific region. Obviously if Japan was going to aid its ally Germany opening a second front against Russia made the most sense; while attacking the US at Pearl Harbor and in the Philippines made the least sense because it brings the US into the War, but the Soviets succeeded with this deception.
Here Yalta agreements and the problems of the USSR holding American citizens is reviewed. (Pres. Harding had had problems getting Americans out of Russia in 1921. Only by withholding humanitarian aid did he move Lenin to relent. )
At Yalta in ‘45 Americans wanted the right to send search and rescue teams to locations were Americans might have been held. USSR refused saying the problem “does not exist”. Additionally, at Yalta the creation of the UN was decided but FDR by carefully wording his statement to Congress did not reveal that Russia would get three votes for America’s one vote. Actually FDR was basically incapacitated by then and Hopkins was really calling the shots.
Americans who did get out of Eastern Europe were instructed not to speak about the Soviet treatment of the locals or themselves. Finally in 1985 a carefully edited version of the Yalta minutes were actually released.
Meantime the USSR was staging coup after coup in the various occupied countries putting in Communist “stooges”. Gov. Earle was about to go public with a complaint about Soviet behavior when FDR had him sent to American Samoa to get him out of the way.
At the end of hostilities the US and Britain actually controlled the area around Berlin but Ike had been told that the Russian sector of Germany would contain Berlin so he waited and let the Russian army occupy the Germany capital. Even the actual news of the unconditional surrender of Germany had to wait an extra day became the USSR wanted to release the news.
It was suspected that there were about 40,000 US and British troops in various eastern German areas at the end of the war most of these were never released by the Soviets. Verification of this suspicion came in the early 1990’s when Soviet archives and the Venona intercepts were made public. There had been sporadic reports of Americans in Soviet prisons over the years mostly being forced to repair Lend Lease equipment (e.g. lathes, trucks, jeeps, etc.)
Here the author points out the similarities between Soviet ideology, Nazi Ideology, and Islamic ideology. In all three the leaders use the ideology to subjugated the individual to the wishes of the leader(s) or state.
Ms Black doesn’t feel America will ever go as far as Germany, Russia, or the Islamic countries have gone regulating their people; however she is surprised by how far the gov’t Socialism and its accompanying controls have gone in America. (FDR’s had hoped for a “convergence” percentage of 60% private control of the economy. Today, depending upon which state one lives in, the percentage under private control is much lower generally in the 50% to 40% range when one considers regulations and taxes. )
prepared by Hugh Murray on 1/10/18